Right to Safe Drinking Water with Special Reference to Bangalore City - A Legal Regulation of Ground Water Management
Ground water levels are fast depleting in urban areas due to overdraft. It is an alternate source to limited surface water supplies. This paper provides count on tube wells estimating dependence, draft and depletion in Bangalore City Corporation. Survey of every bore wells was conducted every year with Governmental Agency is appreciable. The ground water management through legal regulation is needed in Bangalore City Corporation. The existing ground water laws should be strictly implemented for protection and preservation of ground water. Privatization of ground water needs attention in the light of right to drinking water as it threats to free access of safe drinking water.
Keywords: Drinking water, Ground water, Bangalore, Pollution, Legal regulation
The paper has probed and evaluated teachers’ opinions about the Kishori Awareness Program-a school based Life Skills Education for adolescent girls in the Kannada Medium Government schools in Hubli-Dharwad. This study is based on the premise that for effectiveness of such programs, dedication and commitment of teachers is vital. The findings revealed that commitment and allegiance of teachers was rather low as they were not involved in any other phase of developing or evaluating the program, except its implementation. It is therefore recommended for the teachers’ involvement at all levels of the program formulation or a thorough preparatory training to achieve their active participation and keen monitoring of their participation.
Key words: Teachers’ opinions, School based Intervention, Life Skills Education for girls.
Women employment has become a common feature in India. People have started realizing that it is an aspect of equality in practice and it is essential for women empowerment. Work-life balance is a recent concept applied to all the types of working population. But its application has significance very much with working women population. Most of the present day women employees are able to balance between work and life, as work is an advantage for their economic independence and empowerment. The present article is an outcome of a research study, a part of a doctoral study of the author that highlights the factors that induce the work-life balance among women employees.
The phenomenon of human trafficking has increased significantly over the past two decades, both globally and in South Asian countries. India is a source; destination and transit country for men, women and children trafficked for the purpose of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Women and girl are trafficked within the country for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage. Children are also subjected to forced labour as factory workers, domestic servants, beggars and agricultural workers. Due persistent inequalities worldwide, women are more vulnerable to this practice which is a consequence of structured gender inequality in the form of violence. Trafficking for sexual exploitation typically includes abuse within the commercial sex industry (US trafficking in person’s report 2009).
Poverty and health is one of the important aspects because it is going hand in hand. As the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has shown, substantially improved health outcomes are a prerequisite if developing countries are to break out of the circle of poverty. Good health contributes to development through a number of pathways, which partly overlap but in each case add to the total impact: Higher labour productivity, Higher rates of domestic and foreign investment, Improved human capital, Higher rates of national savings. Demographic changes. Health systems comprise the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services delivered by health personnel and their support structures (e.g. drug-procurement systems). They include both public- and private-sector services (for-profit and not-forprofit), formal and informal, as well as traditional services, and home- and family-based care. In many developing countries health systems are weak and fragmented, with the result that millions of the world’s poor do not have access to the public health services and personal care they need. In this respect, a major challenge is to address the gender, ethnic and socio-economic biases in health service delivery in order to reach vulnerable groups and groups with special needs.
Poverty and Mental Health in India
Managing good health is difficult due to many stressors in our daily life. A person with good in financial condition faces health problems and gets disturb psychologically sometimes. It is very challenging to have good health for people facing poverty because they face many stressors in day to day life. As we know, poverty is one of social problems in India. Poverty leads to other problems also. Poverty is an inability to fulfil the physiological needs, that is, need for existence, safety and security. The number of poor people in India, according to the country’s Eleventh National Development Plan, amounts to more than 300 million. The country has successful in reducing the proportion of poor people from about 55 percent in 1973 to about 27 percent in 2004, but almost one-third of the country’s of more than 11 billion continues to live below the poverty like, and a large proportion of poor people live in rural areas (R.Ahuja, 2014).
Poverty and Inclusion in Handloom Sector- A Case Study Of Chirala Handloom Weavers
According to the Third National Handloom Census of Handloom Weavers and Allied Workers 2010, nearly 27.83 lakh handloom households are engaged in weaving and allied activities, out of which 87% are located in rural areas and remaining 13 % in urban areas. The handloom sector is second largest source of employment in the country, next only to agriculture. It provides employment for 12.5 million people and is the largest rural employment provider next to agriculture.
Poverty in India, according to the Planning Commission report, has reduced successfully in 2009-10 from 1973. Similarly, the rural poverty also declined during the same period. However, India is still facing the mass poverty even after successful completion of Eleventh Five Year Plan. For poverty alleviation, India started a number of programs and policies; but all remained unsuccessful. Despite achieving more than 5 per cent economic growth, the trickle-down effect idea to reach the benefit of growth to the poor also failed. Several laws were passed for poverty alleviation, but they too could not help much to the poor. Now, the planning commission thought of “inclusive growth” for the poor to be included in the growth and development process. MGNREGA is one of the important act for the rural people to include in the growth process. It is helpful in reducing poverty in rural areas by providing 100 days guaranteed wage employment. In the villages, the infrastructures are created, which is of prime importance for the development of the rural as well as the urban areas. MGNREGA is also helpful in raising the standard of living of the rural people. However, the people in rural areas welcomed the MGNREGA, but considered it as “half a loaf is better than none”. India fixed the target for the growth of 9.0 to 9.5 percent for the Twelfth plan, but it should be inclusive. Poverty, therefore, must be addressed at priority basis, because growth has no meaning without reducing misery and hunger to the large sections of the society. In India, more than 70 present people live in rural areas and among rural population. Marginalized sections of the society are more vulnerable.
Gender norms and patterns are rigid, and very often put women in disadvantaged positions relative to men – including limiting women’s equal access to decent work. But gender norms can and do change. Economic policies – at the macro, meso and micro levels – can be designed in ways that are transformative and that enhance gender equity. The ability of paid employment to expand women’s range of choices – hence contributing to closing persistent gender gaps in labour markets and within households – is related to the type of jobs women have access to, the level and regularity of their earnings, the opportunities for mobilizing and organizing, and the ways in which women’s and men’s productive and reproductive roles are coordinated and protected through policies. Gender based deprivations and inequalities; poverty can be very debilitating and add on to the vulnerabilities of women. Another significant issue is regarding the fact that experiences and responses to poverty are dissimilar among men and women, due to the gendered constraints and variations in the opportunities (Masika, et al., 1997; Razavi, 2000).
The Copenhagen Declaration describes absolute impoverishment as ‘a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human wants, as well as food, safe potable, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information’. Extreme impoverishment is that the results of permanent or long lasting kinds of dangerousness that undermine the capability of people, families, communities and population teams to assume basic rights enshrined within the International Bill of Human Rights. The social problem and Extreme impoverishment can’t be overcome by material aid and capability building alone, nor will impoverishment reduction initiatives achieve success unless they’re supported the popularity of the inherent dignity and on the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as expressed within the social work and Universal Declaration of Human Rights preamble.
About 50 percent of total population constitutes women, but women workers constitute only 16 percent, 80 percent remain engaged in unorganized sectors. The entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. According to the United Nations Human Development Report (2002) in India women work 457 minutes per day and men391. The type of activities men and women do explains why women work more time than men but their estimated income is lower. Women spend 65% of their time in non-market activities, and men spend 92% of their time in market activities. However, the number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly and many are creating Substantial businesses Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business field. But the Indian women entrepreneurs are facing some major constraints. Women are expected to perform the domestic and reproductive tasks like cooking, cleaning, collection of fuel wood and water, care for the animals, child bearing and rearing. This type of mentality imposes restrictions on their mobility and on their contacts with the outside world, restrains their access to jobs and their social and political participation in the society. They are dependent on men, economically, socially and politically, and have limited direct independent access to resources.
The right to food that comes under the Article 21, right to life with reference to the Directive Principle of State Policy, Article 47 i.e. concerning about the nutrition and standard of living has led to the implementation of new and better government programmes. Such programmes include mid day meals for school children, nutritious food for adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating mothers, subsidized food for vulnerable groups i.e. Public Distribution System
Environmental Degradation And Economic Challenges Faced By The Kurumbas Of Melebhudayar, Attapadi, Kerala
Tribal livelihood is greatly influenced by the environment that they live with. Amidst novelties, the Tribal population in most of the states in India habituate and depend on the ecology for their sustainability. Tribal population is characterised by backwardness due to very many reasons such as social, geographical isolation, inaccessibility and has a great problem with reach of services. This backwardness makes the Tribal population to be vulnerable among other categories of people (World Bank, 2012). Tribal people are distinct in terms of their interaction with the environment that they habituate. Most of their diets are based on forest produce which is of sufficient nutrition. They make use of every roots and shoots in their environment for their medicinal values and other daily use such that one could observe their culture intertwined with the natural environment.
A Study on the Impact of MGNREGS in Alleviating Poverty among Backward Class Women in Rechamballi Village of Chamarajanagara District
Poverty is one of the major human challenges in any part of the world and in any cultural back ground universally without any exceptions. It is culturally believed in India that a person experiencing poverty can’t even cross his own house borders when a physically challenged even can climb tricky hill ranges unabatedly. This concept explains that poverty impinges on human being a great sense of burden in terms of severe limitations on psyche, body and global social life. Our ancient scriptures described poverty in series of mythological stories in a vivid manner, where in Kuchela (the close associate of Lord Krishna) was described of having undergone poverty of utter distressing grades. Poverty becomes significant not by its mere presence itself but by its capacity of causing consequent realities such as enforcing the individual to be incapable of accessing Socio-economic supports and mainstream social life.
Festival spending pattern; its impact on Financial Vulnerability of Rural Households
Festival is a day or days of celebration of an organized series of cultural and social concerts or to remember an event to promote the cultural heritage of the society Poverty could result from transient phenomena and sudden shocks such as crop failure, untimely death etc. The impact of such shocks can be transient in the event of the household being able to sell assets or borrow or generate income from alternative employment opportunities that enable it to wait for income from the next harvest. However, if the household has no assets to sell or no access to credit, or is able to borrow at exploitative rates of interest and gets into a debt trap, shocks can have long duration ramifications in terms of pushing households below the poverty line.
Social Action as the Most Appropriate Social Work Approach for Reducing Poverty and Income Inequality in India
Social Action is seen within Social Work as one of its auxiliary methods. It has not been given much importance in Social Work Education as well as in Practice. On the contrary it is seen as a difficult method to practice because Social Action is perceived to be very radical and confrontationist and to be inviting problems in a tradition-bound country like India. However, we need to acknowledge that understanding and use of Social Action goes much beyond what is conceptualized and practiced in Professional Social Work. It is because Social Action is practiced mostly by those not trained in Professional Social Work than by those with such a degree. It is also argued, many a time, that professionalization of Social Work has weakened Social Action (Jacob, 1965). In such a context, the present paper argues that Social Action should be seen as having a great deal of potential to bring about the systemic change in a country like India which is still struggling with the issues related to poverty and income inequality and that it should be adopted as an approach of Social Work Profession rather than as an auxiliary method.
Poverty Reduction of North East Women Migrant Workers: Problems and Social Work Interventions
Women are the pillar of society and play an important role in society, in all fields of life, without their participation no society can nurture properly. From the ancient time, women have been equally participating with their men, but their participation in labor force has not been given the same consideration as men collect from their work. Women are still expected to perform the duties of household in spite of their working status. Working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. So the major burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homemakers. Now with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to work all the more harder. Globalization has indeed raised hopes of women for a better and elevated status arising out of increased chances to work but, at the same time, it has put them in a highly contradictory situation where they have the label of economically independent paid workers but are not able to enjoy their economic liberty in real sense of the term.
Health Problems and Medication of Senior Citizens in India: A Field Level Assessment
In any society the elderly are the most vulnerable and high risk groups in terms of health status. After a certain age, health problems begin to crop up leading to losing control over one’s body and mind even not recognizing own family owing to Alzheimer. It is then children began to see their parents as a burden. It is these parents who at times wander out of their homes or are thrown out. Some leave their old parents or grandparents in old-age homes and don’t even come to visit them. They are prone to several ailments with increase in their age. Some of these ailments may be chronic. But the physical and financial resources for treatment of such diseases are limited with regard to older persons. Keeping in view of this, the present study analyzes the chronic ailments by which the senior citizens (old age people) suffering and their source for treatment. For the present study random sampling method is applied for the selection of the sample. The study also discusses the old age population trends at global, national and state level.
Women Empowerment refers to the strengthening of the social, economic and educational powers as well as status of women. It refers to an environment where there is no gender bias for women and has equal rights of them in community, society and workplaces. According to the World Bank out of total population female percentage in India was last measured at 48.16 in 2014.They have every right to be treated equally with men in every sphere of life and society. The empowerment of women would result in overall development of society both at micro and macro level. Active participation of women in economic activities and decision making would contribute towards overall human as well as economic development. “Empowering Women” means to authorize power or increase the overall participation, contribution, status and prestige of women in every spheres of life. Empowerment of women would result in better, competitive, healthy and more developed society. When women contribute equally along with men for the benefit of society, the world would surely become a better place to live. Today more and more females are studying in schools and colleges and also go abroad for higher studies. Women are increasingly commanding better position in the society. The Govt. of India has taken different measures to empower the women in different ways from time to time since our independence. This paper aims at to investigate these measures in terms of their implementation and effectiveness with respect to the objectives of these schemes and programmes taken up by the Indian Govt. for uplifting the status of the women in the society. This is a descriptive study based on the secondary sources of data.
Key words: Women, Empowerment, Government
“Can SDG’S Achieve What Millennium Development Goals Could Not? Rethinking from Global Context”
The quest for a better world is an ever-prevalent dream. We live in an age of unprecedented prosperity, but also unspeakable deprivation around the world. Equitable distribution of resources is the need of the day. Many programmes and policies are formulated in this direction. The year 2016 marks an end of the era of one such programme: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which drove the global development agenda since the new millennium. The MDGs have now paved the way for another set of goals that the world will strive to achieve over the next fifteen years: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDG’s are an outcome of the conversation on the intersectionality between economic, social and environmental change. These ambitious and aspirational SDGs call for significant rethinking in development processes across the world. this paper is an attempt to reflect on the MDG era and consider the possible way forward for achieving the ambitious and inclusive agenda of SDGs while reflecting upon the possible role of social workers in making this viable. The emerging relationship between the policy makers and the masses brought about by the mediation of the social worker epitomises the fundamental ongoing changes This paper is an attempt to trace the lofty development goals of the SDG’s juxtaposed against the MDG’s while delineating, the potential significance of the dynamic social relationships between various stakeholders.
Keywords: MDG’s, SDG’s, Development Goals, Social Workers, Stakeholders, Role.
Background: The growing trend of alcohol and substance abuse among the adolescents and students community is becoming a serious and treble issue. Glorification of alcohol and drugs in modern life has made the issue more pathetic. Now a day’s people start experimenting with the alcohol and other illicit in very little age. Studies found prevalent use of alcohol among students; even those not used yet started have a very positive attitude towards alcohol and substances.
Intervention fieldwork in social work education is exceptionally practiced at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in India. The conventional method of fieldwork training in the institutional setup is largely found. Thereby, there is a lacking in the independent practice of social work by pupils of social work. Hence, the knowledge, skills, aptitude and value orientation obtained in social work training has hardly addressed the Interventional needs of the society. In other words, professional socialisation of social work students is misleading the very purpose of social work education in catering the development needs of society. There is also a need of intervention research in order to test and re-test the significance of social work theories, methods and knowledge. In Indian context, there is a paucity of indigenous literature on social work as a consequence of conventional method of fieldwork training and the dearth of intervention research. This has a bearing on establishing social work as a profession and seeking social recognition in India. The paper attempts to argue the importance of intervention fieldwork in social work education in order to develop competent social work professionals in addressing the fast changing and complex issues of society. The paper is based on a case study of women self help group consisting 20 economically poor members formed by a local NGO in Tippu Sultan Nagar Slum in the city of Vijayapura. Intervention field work has resulted in a change in numeracy and functional literacy from (10 percent) to (90 percent) and documentation skills from (5 percent) to (85 percent). The paper illustrates the components and process of intervention fieldwork that can be adopted in the schools of social work to strengthen social work education in order to develop a cadre of competent professional social workers.
Key Words: Intervention Fieldwork, Socialisation of Social Work Education, Teaching Social Work Practice.
Overview: India is one among the countries rich in water resources in the world. According to Central Water Commission’s annual report 2014-15 rainfall in India varies from 100 mm in Western most regions to 11000 mm in Eastern most region. The estimated average annual rainfall in India is 117cms. Central water commission estimates that the average annual precipitation is 13200 TMCft (Thousand Million Cubic Feet) in which about 9900 TMCft of water precipitates during monsoon. The overall natural runoff and estimated utilizable surface water resources is 6555.45 TMCft and 1980 TMCft respectively. Along with this about 1320 TMCft ground water is also available for utilization. As per Central Water Commission (CWC) which makes periodic assessment of the country‘s water resources estimates water resources potential of the country that naturally runoff in the rivers is about 6167.7 TMCft. But due to various constraints of topography and uneven distribution over space and time, only about 3705 TMCft of the total annual water potential can be put to beneficial use. This can be achieved through 2277 TMCft of utilizable surface water and 1428.9 TMCft through ground water. While water for drinking purpose has been accorded top most priority in water use, irrigation is the major consumer of water. Ultimate Irrigation Potential which can be created through major and medium irrigation projects is assessed as 58.47 Mha. Besides this, an additional irrigation potential about 35 Mha can be created by taking up long distance inter basin transfer of water from surplus to deficit basins.
“A Study on Women Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Development of Rural Entrepreneurship in Selected villages of Uttar Kannada District”
Development is a multi-dimensional process which affects nation in many ways. It is well known that women constitute half of the national population but their contribution in the economy and other development faces remain unnoticed. The women entrepreneurship is an effective strategy to solve the problem of rural poverty. It promotes the quality of life by motivating women potentiality. The present research aims at focusing some specific areas pertaining to probabilities and hurdles of developing rural entrepreneurship exclusively executed by women SHGs. SHGs are playing a vital role in promoting rural entrepreneurship utilizing local knowledge, occupational skills and available local resources involving women workforce. Policy Makers, Rural Development Practitioners and Educationists in recent years concentrating their attention on SHGs as an instrument for the over all development of rural women and constructive social change.
Key Words- Women Self Help Groups, Women entrepreneur, Rural entrepreneurship, Rural women, Micro enterprise, Women empowerment.
A Study on Depression, Stress among the Parents of Sex Trafficked Female Victims and Social Work Intervention
Human trafficking, or trafficking in persons, is a form of modern-day slavery and millions of people around the world, including children are victims of this crime. Human trafficking is the exploitation of human beings, especially vulnerable populations, and is recognized as one of the most severe abuses of human rights today. Violations of human rights are both a cause and a consequence of human trafficking.
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