About 50 percent of total population constitutes women, but women workers constitute only 16 percent, 80 percent remain engaged in unorganized sectors. The entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. According to the United Nations Human Development Report (2002) in India women work 457 minutes per day and men391. The type of activities men and women do explains why women work more time than men but their estimated income is lower. Women spend 65% of their time in non-market activities, and men spend 92% of their time in market activities. However, the number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly and many are creating Substantial businesses Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business field. But the Indian women entrepreneurs are facing some major constraints. Women are expected to perform the domestic and reproductive tasks like cooking, cleaning, collection of fuel wood and water, care for the animals, child bearing and rearing. This type of mentality imposes restrictions on their mobility and on their contacts with the outside world, restrains their access to jobs and their social and political participation in the society. They are dependent on men, economically, socially and politically, and have limited direct independent access to resources.
Women Empowerment refers to the strengthening of the social, economic and educational powers as well as status of women. It refers to an environment where there is no gender bias for women and has equal rights of them in community, society and workplaces. According to the World Bank out of total population female percentage in India was last measured at 48.16 in 2014.They have every right to be treated equally with men in every sphere of life and society. The empowerment of women would result in overall development of society both at micro and macro level. Active participation of women in economic activities and decision making would contribute towards overall human as well as economic development. “Empowering Women” means to authorize power or increase the overall participation, contribution, status and prestige of women in every spheres of life. Empowerment of women would result in better, competitive, healthy and more developed society. When women contribute equally along with men for the benefit of society, the world would surely become a better place to live. Today more and more females are studying in schools and colleges and also go abroad for higher studies. Women are increasingly commanding better position in the society. The Govt. of India has taken different measures to empower the women in different ways from time to time since our independence. This paper aims at to investigate these measures in terms of their implementation and effectiveness with respect to the objectives of these schemes and programmes taken up by the Indian Govt. for uplifting the status of the women in the society. This is a descriptive study based on the secondary sources of data.
Key words: Women, Empowerment, Government
Ageing is a universal biological fact and a natural process. It begins from the day we are born, or perhaps even before. Senior citizens are more vulnerable because of deterioration of mature organisms. India now has the second largest aged population in the world. According to recent statistics (2001) related to elderly people in India, it was observed that 80% reside in rural areas. About 48.2% of elderly persons were women, out of whom 55% were widows. 40% of them live below poverty line and 70.3% of elderly are illiterate (2000). About 90% of the elderly were from the unorganized sector, i.e., they have no regular source of income. Old age is commonly associated with frequent illness and requires medical care and associated health services. In the population over 70years of age, more than 50% suffer from one or more chronic conditions. (Reddy PH 1996).
Good health is an invaluable asset for better economic productivity, both at the individual and at the national level, but above all it is valued by those who own it as a pre requisite for better quality of life and better standard of living. The biological differences and the life process of women necessitate special attention for ensuring better health for women. Beginning of Menstrual Cycle, Pregnancy, lactating period and menopause are the milestones in the life of ordinary women as there will be lot of physio- psychological changes. Each period requires special care in terms of dietary practices, physical exercises, rest and social interactions. Towards achieving this goal the United Nations, Government of India and the Government of Karnataka have made several efforts. The present paper has been prepared using the NFHS- IV data to understand the status of health of women in Karnataka. The presence of anemia both among pregnant (39.6% in urban and 48.7% in urban areas) and non pregnant women (43.0% in urban and 46.2% in urban areas), obesity, low body mass index and the domestic violence (20%) indicates the need for an integrated approach for the health of women. This calls for a shift from reproductive health approach to life cycle approach for promoting the health of women.
Keywords: reproductive approach, health problems of women, life cycle approach.
Dalit women constitute a vast section of India’s population; they have been socially excluded and humiliated for a long period of time. Dalit women are compelled to live a vulnerable life, be it economic, education, health and all other areas that fall under basic needs. They are denied justice, equity as well as social and political participation. Impoverishment and marginalization of the vulnerable Dalit women have been going on unabated since long time. In recognition of the unique problems of the Dalit women the Indian Government through ‘Positive interventions’, ‘affirmative measures’ have consistently developed policies for their economic, social and political empowerment. Though these policies have brought some positive change, however, the process of transformation has been extremely slow. The policies are inadequate to minimize the handicaps and disabilities of the past and in reducing the gaps between them and the rest of the Indian society. Dalit women continue to suffer from a high degree of poverty, gender discrimination, caste discrimination and socio-economic deprivation. In this context, the paper addresses the issues of education, health, employment, poverty, inequality and exclusion of Dalits in general and Dalit women in particular in the contemporary Indian society. The focus of the paper is to understand the various policies and perspective in planning best remedies and measures to eradicate the social discrimination and ensure equity participation of Dalit women in every spheres of life. It also identifies the challenges that confront their main streaming emancipation and empowerment in contemporary times.
Key Words: Dalit Women, Empowerment, Discrimination, Exclusion Education.
A woman working as entrepreneur is not a new concept. They have been running enterprises at an individual level or with their spouses, successfully, since ages, though they have never got the credit or appreciation for the same. With time they have learn’t the tricks of the trade and with experience have improved in terms of managerial and leadership skills. Unlike male counterparts, women entrepreneurs have different objectives behind starting an enterprise. It is the sense of achievement and not of earning only profit that motivates them to be entrepreneurs. The objective is different, and so are the problems faced by they and they should have a fair idea of the same so that they can deal with them tactfully.
The present study reports the level of family environment of undergraduate women teachers in Mysore city. A total of 264 women teachers working as permanent and temporary basis belonging to different age groups were randomly selected for the study. They were administered family environment scale, consisting of 90 items measuring family environment in 10 dimensions. The family environment was measured in following dimensions-cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement orientation, intellectual orientation, active recreational, moral religious emphasis, organization and control. The data were subjected to t test and one-way ANOVA to find out the influence of job nature and age. Results revealed that those who were working on permanent basis had significantly higher cohesion, conflict, organization and control compared to those teachers who were working on a temporary basis. Age-wise comparisons revealed that at least in 5 dimensions-cohesion, conflict, intellectual orientation, organization and control age had a direct influence, as the age increased the mean scores in the above 5 dimensions increased more or less linearly and significantly. Further, improving family environment and they by increasing overall quality of life of women teachers have been discussed.
Key words: Women teachers, family environment
Abstract: The paper presents definition of slum in the national context and the problems faced by slum occupants in terms of health and hygiene, the living conditions and the social issues. Special mention is made about the scenario in Bangalore and the efforts by some activist’s and organizations towards betterment of the slum inhabitants and the areas.
Women in Service Sectors; Anganwadi Workers (ICDS-Programme)A Sociological study in Madhugiri Taluk, Thumakur Dist.
The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme today is the world’s largest Programme aimed at enhancing the health, nutrition and learning opportunities of infants, young children (0-6 years) and their mothers. This paper explores the socio-economic status, problems and challenges of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) in ICDS Programes and to assess knowledge of AWWs & problems traced by them while working in the study area of Madhugiri taluk of Tumkur district in the state of Karnataka. The knowledge increases with experience as an AWW, but has no relation with their educational qualification. Problems felt by them were mainly due to inadequate honorarium and excess work load. So, timely increments in honorarium should be considered.Anganwadi workers have been subjected to triple suppression: that of caste, gender and class and more often are the victims of violence. To aggravate this situation most of the crimes like physical abuse, financial fraud discrimination at work and home goes to unreported. In announcing the 2008-2009 Budget, Indian Finance Minister P Chidambaram stated that salaries would be increased for Anganwadi workers to Rs 1500 per month and helpers to Rs 750 per month. In March 2008 there is debate about whether packaged foods, such as biscuits, should become part of the food served. Detractors, including Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen, disagreed saying it will become the only food consumed by the children. Options for increasing partnership with the private sector are continuing. Within one month Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch smart card called UWIN (Unorganised Workers’ Identification Number) card. We had sought time from the Prime Minister for launching it for over 40 crore workers in the country.
The last few decades have marked a glorious period of demographic transition in Karnataka, especially marked by considerable decline in both fertility and mortality rates. According to the 2011 Census, the state has a population of 6, 11, 30, and 704 with a decadal population growth rate of 15.67 per cent as against 17.64 per cent for the country. It was 17.51 per cent as against 21.54 per cent for the country in 2001. As compared to the other states, Karnataka state has already achieved the replacement level fertility by 2006 itself (TFR 2.0 & Replacement level fertility was 2.1). As per the 2011 censuses, Karnataka has a better position in terms of sex ratio i.e., number of females per 1,000 males (965) as compared to the national average (933). During the last century, the sex ratio was adverse to the women and continued to be so. In 1891, there were 991 females per 1,000 males. But a century later, the sex ratio had substantially declined over the period to 960. The progress of health care and its utilization has fully supported to achieve the life expectancy at birth of women that is higher than the men and the male-female gap is widening in favour of females. Age at marriage is an important indicator to understand the levels and trends of population growth and it plays a key role in limiting the family size. It is also considered as one of the best indicators for studying the status of women in the developing countries (Vagliani, 1980). The fertility transition has been further faster in the south resulting in widening the gap in fertility between northern and southern districts and between rural and urban areas. The percentage of contraceptive use among currently married women in the state has increased from 58 per cent in NFHS – II to 64 per cent in NFHS – III. It is also much higher (64 per cent) than the national average (56 per cent).
The term gender discrimination and sexual harassment at workplace was constructed from the view of women. The legal protection to women at workplace has been formulated at the block, district and national level for the organized as well as unorganized sector. The majority of working women are not aware of the legal protection issues. International Conventions and issues related to gender discrimination and sexual harassment at workplace has been discussed along with social work intervention.
This article is about the evolution of SHGs in the country and the resultant benefits for the under-served population, especially for women. The SHGs have acquired the status of a movement in India, within a span of three decades, thanks to the sustained efforts of the NGOs, NABARD and the State Governments. SHGs from the simple savings and credit groups have evolved as village levelcommunity based organizations not only to take care of the financial needs of the marginalised communities but also to access various community infrastructures and amenities. This was possible by a process oriented approach. Yet, in recent times, most of the SHGs are targeted by the professional micro finance institutions/agencies (MFIs) for credit delivery, banking on its good repayment history. This massive invasion of MFIs has undermined the habit of regular savings, internal rotation of funds and book keeping, which were the mainstay of SHGs. This is a worrying trend, as SHGs become a target, ignoring the fact that it was a product of process.
Ever growing urban amalgamations attract people from other geographical regions as an attractive employment destination. Most of these migrants lack skill or education or both in securing a job in formal / organized sector. Also, in densely populated cities, many inmates face the problem of unemployment due to various reasons. Some of these reasons encourage men and women to take up vending on streets. Historically, street vending has been a part of our culture and tradition. During the time of Krishna Deva Raya, in Vijayanagar Empire, street vending included selling of gold and silver articles. In the recent times, street vending includes selling of eatables, vegetables and fruits, toys, cloth, woolen carpets and even electronic goods. Street vendors form an integral part of our socio – cultural and economic life. Reports indicate that,street vendors constitute approximately 2 per cent of the population of a metropolis and they contribute significantly to economy. But, it is difficult to get a precise measure of population of street vendors and their contribution to economy.
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