This is an article on Dr. Ruth Manorama and her outstanding contribution for the liberation of the Dalits, particularly Dalit Women for forty years.
The article explains the meaning and scope of human rights as the collective rights of communities and peoples.The article examines the patriarchal social order in relation to women's rights. The different perspectives and approaches of women's rights are discussed in the article. Analysis of power and violence, and the power of impunity are critically analysed. Rights of women with disabilities, women victims of evictions and displacements, and women belonging to fishing communities also form parts of the article. Gendered division of labour and women in governance are discussed critically in the article.
This brief article is intended to give a link to the articles on Women’s Rights and on Dr.Ruth Manorama. It includes birth-based caste system, atrocities against Dalits from a Dalit poet’s angle, the Prevention of Atrocities (against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) Act, and continuing violations of the law.
The article focuses on the positive requirements to ensure long-lasting industrial peace. The first part of the article discusses the comprehensive settlement between the South India Mill Owners’ Association (SIMA), Coimbatore and trade unions in 1956, which served as a model agreement for the Indian textile industry. The second part describes the author’s experiences at Ashok Leyland, the second largest automobile factory in India. A company with one union, Ashok Leyland, had a good industrial relations climate till an aggressive leader became the union president. Go-slow, lay off, gherao, closure of the company, large scale disciplinary action and replacement of the external union president by a workman as president were witnessed in the company. The last section of the article narrates a gentleman’s agreement and a win-win collective bargaining settlement.
Navaratnas of Professional Social Work in India : Women Social Workers Who Changed Millions of Lives Dr. Ruth Manorama
My association with Dr. Ruth Manorama dates back to 1973, when my former student R.S.Anbarasan brought Ruth and her classmate Karuna David to introduce me to them . It was at the MSSW. Slowly our friendship became more informal because of the affable nature of Ruth and Karuna. They both were also regular visitors to my home. I always felt that Ruth would be a mass leader one day as she carried herself with immense self-assurance even as a student.Sh had definite views on all social issues and she articulated her points of opinion with conviction. Ruth has been in the centre stage of Dalit activism and empowerment of Dalit women for nearly four decades. Her spheres of action extend beyond national boundaries and she is an active figure in the global action for liberation of the oppressed. The prestigious Right Livelihood Award was the confirmation of the global recognition of her relentless struggle for the liberation of the Dalits and more so the Dalit women. I am sure the government of India will soon honour her with suitable Padma awards. The Nobel Prize for Peace one day will be a worthy stimulus to the optimism of Ruth Manorama in the pursuit of her goal.
Professor of social work and Former Principal, MSSW.
1. Introduction about your job / career, define your career?
I am Director of Arpitha Associates Pvt Ltd and EFIL Educational Services Pvt Ltd. I have been working as a coach, trainer, healer, faculty, designer for OD interventions, writer and researcher.
2. Qualification required for this job?
MSW and PhD with certifications in process training, HR, and any other additional training in technology and people management will help.
Dalit women constitute a vast section of India’s population; they have been socially excluded and humiliated for a long period of time. Dalit women are compelled to live a vulnerable life, be it economic, education, health and all other areas that fall under basic needs. They are denied justice, equity as well as social and political participation. Impoverishment and marginalization of the vulnerable Dalit women have been going on unabated since long time. In recognition of the unique problems of the Dalit women the Indian Government through ‘Positive interventions’, ‘affirmative measures’ have consistently developed policies for their economic, social and political empowerment. Though these policies have brought some positive change, however, the process of transformation has been extremely slow. The policies are inadequate to minimize the handicaps and disabilities of the past and in reducing the gaps between them and the rest of the Indian society. Dalit women continue to suffer from a high degree of poverty, gender discrimination, caste discrimination and socio-economic deprivation. In this context, the paper addresses the issues of education, health, employment, poverty, inequality and exclusion of Dalits in general and Dalit women in particular in the contemporary Indian society. The focus of the paper is to understand the various policies and perspective in planning best remedies and measures to eradicate the social discrimination and ensure equity participation of Dalit women in every spheres of life. It also identifies the challenges that confront their main streaming emancipation and empowerment in contemporary times.
Key Words: Dalit Women, Empowerment, Discrimination, Exclusion Education.
Alcohol use Disorder Identification Test (Audit) Based Profile of Alcohol Addicted Patients in aCommunity Based De Addiction Camp of Mysore
Introduction: Alcohol is the commonest substance abused by the human beings. The consumption of alcohol has been growing rapidly over the last two decades and alcoholic beverages are a standard lubricant at social gathering and those who refuse to consume run the risk of being social outcasts. Deaddiction and rehabilitation of alcoholics is a very crucial step to mainstream such demarginalised members of the society. The family and community at large play a very important role in reintegrating those with alcohol abuse. The community based camps provides easy access for those addicted to overcome their illness in a reassuring environment. With this background, the present study was conducted with the objective to assess the Audit profile of the study participants in a community based deaddiction camp.
What is suicide?
People think that death due to suicide is a rare event. Actually, it is not; it ranks ten among the leading causes of death in most countries. Suicide is generally described as the act of purposefully ending one’s life. Opinion about suicide differs from culture to culture and from country to country. Some religions like Christianity and Islam consider suicide a sin. Some states brand suicide attempt as a crime punishable by law. But in several other cultures, it is approved as a sacred religious act. Some Jain saints in India voluntarily end their life and the act is considered sacred. Jains ending their life out of starvation is not considered as suicide but an culturally accepted act. Japanese engage in hara-kiri when a person has had a serious failure in life or has been dishonored. Several people kill themselves when someone whom they adored (king, queen, leader, hero or heroine) dies. Nowadays, several individuals (terrorists) are trained to kill themselves as suicide bombers. There are people who undertake a hunger strike unto death. Some psychologists and psychiatrists consider suicide as a mental disorder; several people are found to kill themselves within a week after their discharge from a mental hospital.
NGOs are ‘Voluntary Organisations’ involved in community initiatives, which is featured with self propelled initiatives that steers to resolve community needs, and non-profit motives. The NGO mobilize resources with a goal to find an end to a particular need of the community and this is how it differs from Business organisations. Thus the principles of Business Organisations and NGOs differ not only in their size, composition, objectivities etc but also in the motive –Profit and Non- Profit, respectively, which makes the ultimate difference in the operative principles. The better understanding and internalization of the various aspects like Marketing, Human resource Management, Finance etc, of Business Management is the key to an efficient working of a Business Organisation. And hence serves as an evidence for the necessity of research and understanding of NGOs for the efficient functioning of the same.
Women in Service Sectors; Anganwadi Workers (ICDS-Programme)A Sociological study in Madhugiri Taluk, Thumakur Dist.
The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme today is the world’s largest Programme aimed at enhancing the health, nutrition and learning opportunities of infants, young children (0-6 years) and their mothers. This paper explores the socio-economic status, problems and challenges of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) in ICDS Programes and to assess knowledge of AWWs & problems traced by them while working in the study area of Madhugiri taluk of Tumkur district in the state of Karnataka. The knowledge increases with experience as an AWW, but has no relation with their educational qualification. Problems felt by them were mainly due to inadequate honorarium and excess work load. So, timely increments in honorarium should be considered.Anganwadi workers have been subjected to triple suppression: that of caste, gender and class and more often are the victims of violence. To aggravate this situation most of the crimes like physical abuse, financial fraud discrimination at work and home goes to unreported. In announcing the 2008-2009 Budget, Indian Finance Minister P Chidambaram stated that salaries would be increased for Anganwadi workers to Rs 1500 per month and helpers to Rs 750 per month. In March 2008 there is debate about whether packaged foods, such as biscuits, should become part of the food served. Detractors, including Nobel Prize winner Amartya Sen, disagreed saying it will become the only food consumed by the children. Options for increasing partnership with the private sector are continuing. Within one month Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch smart card called UWIN (Unorganised Workers’ Identification Number) card. We had sought time from the Prime Minister for launching it for over 40 crore workers in the country.
Corporate Social Responsibility as a field was evolved in US in the early 70’s. From 90’s and to 2000, CSR went through a systematic conceptual change. Many companies in US came forward to use CSR as a tool to protect the planet for future generations and started realizing they can also give back to the community which will create a better image of the company in the public.Corporate Social Responsibility is an emerging field in India. Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 directed the Indian Companies to allocate funds for initiatives and projects for the betterment of the community. The Companies Act, 2013 has listed a number of areas that can be taken up by the companies for CSR. Many companies have started major and minor initiatives by tying up with various non-governmental organizations and welfare groups to address issues like poverty, child malnutrition and women empowerment. This conceptual paper discusses the evolution of CSR and development in India. It further emphasizes the need for streamlining Social Work strategies in CSR activities for ensuring sustainable development.Social workers can add value to the CSR action and create long and sustainable impact and advance societal goals.
Keywords: Social Work, CSR in India, Sustainable Social Change
Women’s Employment and EmpowermentThrough Fertility Transition: Insights from Karnataka
The last few decades have marked a glorious period of demographic transition in Karnataka, especially marked by considerable decline in both fertility and mortality rates. According to the 2011 Census, the state has a population of 6, 11, 30, and 704 with a decadal population growth rate of 15.67 per cent as against 17.64 per cent for the country. It was 17.51 per cent as against 21.54 per cent for the country in 2001. As compared to the other states, Karnataka state has already achieved the replacement level fertility by 2006 itself (TFR 2.0 & Replacement level fertility was 2.1). As per the 2011 censuses, Karnataka has a better position in terms of sex ratio i.e., number of females per 1,000 males (965) as compared to the national average (933). During the last century, the sex ratio was adverse to the women and continued to be so. In 1891, there were 991 females per 1,000 males. But a century later, the sex ratio had substantially declined over the period to 960. The progress of health care and its utilization has fully supported to achieve the life expectancy at birth of women that is higher than the men and the male-female gap is widening in favour of females. Age at marriage is an important indicator to understand the levels and trends of population growth and it plays a key role in limiting the family size. It is also considered as one of the best indicators for studying the status of women in the developing countries (Vagliani, 1980). The fertility transition has been further faster in the south resulting in widening the gap in fertility between northern and southern districts and between rural and urban areas. The percentage of contraceptive use among currently married women in the state has increased from 58 per cent in NFHS – II to 64 per cent in NFHS – III. It is also much higher (64 per cent) than the national average (56 per cent).
The Indian Companies Act 2013 has considerably impacted the relationship that companies used to have with NGOs. From acting as ‘benevolent giver’ to ‘grateful beneficiaries (NGOs)’ the relationship has evolved to one of partnership and collaborative action. In fact, under the CSR Rules NGOs are referred to as the company's “implanting agency” for CSR activities.
“Straight from the Heart : Thoughts and experiences of an HR professional” is a book by Rajeev Moothedath. As the author says diverse subjects that affect the HR professionals are discussed in the book. Sweeping issues under the carpet will not help in solving them. It is only after the first step of ‘acceptance’ happens, that we will be able to move forward. Time has come for HR professionals to stop treading the same beaten path. It is necessary to understand the needs of the internal customers, empathise with them and accept their inputs before embarking on solutions that are more suited to the local situations according to the author. These views of the author are conveyed in 33 brief articles under four sections : Direction and signposts, Leadership thoughts, Experiments in L and D, and Introspection and way forward.
Navaratnas of Professional Social Work in India : Women Social Workers Who Changed Millions of Lives - Dr. Vandana Gopikumar
Founder and Managing Trustee, The Banyan
With globalisation, mental health became an important area of concern and 10 to 12 per cent of India’s population need some form of help. For this, we had only psychiatrists with a highly clinical approach to mental illness. But mental health is more than a clinical issue. It is also a social construct. There are different socio-economic, political, familial and psychological processes that cause mental illness. The Banyan began in 1993 as a humanistic response to the needs of homeless women with mental health issues, an invisible group, among the most marginalized population. The Banyan is a registered not-for-profit organisation in Chennai, offering comprehensive mental health solutions for persons with mental illness, living in homelessness and poverty in community and institutional settings.
The article states that disability can affect all persons at any age. The different nomenclatures of disability are described and the author prefers the pwd (persons with disabilities) because of the emphasis on Person. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability is discussed in the article along with the legal framework in India. The paradigm shift in understanding disability and the extent of the problem of disability are also described in the article. The NSSO estimates and the educational levels of the disabled in India also form part of the article. An important feature of the article is the national programme on the rehabilitation of pwds.
Children in Conflict with Law
The juvenile population in India is increasing day by day and we are going to be the country with the highest young population by 2020. At the same time, the issue of juvenile delinquency is alarming due to various reasons. The country faces many challenges with its constitutional commitment and also being a signatory to the United Nations Convention of Rights of the Children for protecting and promoting child rights in India. However, the status of children and the crimes committed by children give a grim picture about our children. Therefore, this article analyses the various challenges of juvenile delinquency
WORLD SOCIAL WORK DAY-2016
My Mentor's Story
An exceptionally self-effacing social worker who shuns publicity despite his phenomenal services to the elderly in India. He is my mentor Prof. T.K. Nair. He pioneered services for the betterment of the life of India's aged, but remains incognito without seeking any recognition of his work. At a time when the only form of service for the aged in the country was old age homes, he initiated community-based elder care services like day centres, self employment through skill upgradation, family counselling, geriatric social work in hospitals, domiciliary health care, etc.For this purpose he founded the Centre for the Welfare of the Aged (CEWA) in 1979, when I was not even born. The newly established Helpage India in 1978 extended funding support.
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