The Copenhagen Declaration describes absolute impoverishment as ‘a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human wants, as well as food, safe potable, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information’. Extreme impoverishment is that the results of permanent or long lasting kinds of dangerousness that undermine the capability of people, families, communities and population teams to assume basic rights enshrined within the International Bill of Human Rights. The social problem and Extreme impoverishment can’t be overcome by material aid and capability building alone, nor will impoverishment reduction initiatives achieve success unless they’re supported the popularity of the inherent dignity and on the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as expressed within the social work and Universal Declaration of Human Rights preamble.
Levels of impoverishment are identified; extreme impoverishment, moderate impoverishment and relative impoverishment. Extreme impoverishment happens once families cannot get their basic wants for survival. They will be oftentimes hungry, lack safe potable, cannot afford education for his or her youngsters, might lack shelter and have inadequate covering. This level of impoverishment is presumably in developing countries.
Moderate impoverishment happens once families simply meet their basic wants, whereas relative impoverishment refers to circumstances in developed countries once house financial gain is below a given proportion of value. 3 dimensions of maximum impoverishment namely
Role of social Work in Poverty alleviation
In observe everywhere the planet, social employees concern concerning impoverishment of poor and fighting poverty through social work and schemes has raised due to their long history in operating with the marginalized, or excluded, those lacking resources, situations that push them to impoverishment things. At the small level of daily observe, social employees are accustomed managing impoverishment and conjointly with the danger assessment, operating creatively and innovatively to assist individuals (individuals and communities) to know their state of affairs and to alter their behavior and their surroundings, wherever attainable. One role that derives raised attention is community development, which needs skills in community analysis, social coming up with, community organizing and social policy. Community development needs the power to foster economic opportunities for space residents through work on industrial retention, native business development, job coaching, and placement. Another role is community observes that concerns social employees to assist individuals to find their own resources and their own ability to make influence and positive modification. The importance of this has been underscored by realizing that impoverishment involves a posh set of interactions between personal characteristics and a community’s resources and opportunities. From time to time the role of social employees involves creating robust judgments concerning risk to people and from time to time they need to use their ability and influence to safeguard the victims of impoverishment from themselves or from others. Examples embody things of violence, ill-treatment or psychological state. Social workers’ long history of operating with individuals in impoverishment things and witnessing their dynamic behaviour illustrates the importance of desegregation theory concerning skilled values that respect individuals, their decisions and choices. during this approach, community observe combines work with people and families with community work, that specialize in enhancing resources and opportunities in conjunction with personal capacities and as people develop out of their impoverishment things, therefore do communities, and also the 2 become reciprocally reinforcing, making a comprehensive and integrated model that addresses social and economic exclusion and social disintegration that is critical for effective impoverishment destruction.
The World Bank gives the definition for poverty as the inability to attain the minimal standard of living. WB discuss the methodology for Poverty Reduction and Equity, it refers that Poverty is hunger, lack of shelter, being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not that one doesn’t go to school and read, not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time.
Planning Commission estimates that the poverty defines on the basic of non-food expenses of clothing, housing, mobility and education. This report estimates and defines the poverty as Rs.141 per capita per month in rural areas and Rs.407 in urban areas. The new poverty line gives the calculation of per month capita consumption, expenditure of Rs.972 in rural areas and Rs.1, 407 in urban areas in 2011 -12.
Poverty Alleviation in Hubli-Dharwad.
Programme of community mobilization among the peri-urban poor in Hubli Dharwad as well as villages located around the twin city of Hubli–Dharwad in Karnataka state, southern India. Starting in 2001, community mobilization was facilitated by two indigenous NGOs (India Development Service and BAIF Research and Development), and research was conducted by two academic institutions (the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, and Bangor University in the United Kingdom). The experienced any appreciable NGO community development prior to commencement of the work described here, and in the remaining, community mobilization was started de novo along with the consideration of agricultural activity administered by the Hubli–Dharwad municipal corporation. The remaining villages fell under the jurisdiction of Dharwad district Zilla panchayat, the rural administration, and either had their own village council (gram panchayat) or was members of a shared council. All villages were connected to the city by bus services that ran at least hourly, and there was a considerable degree of daily commuting for work or other money-making activities.
The approach taken by the Social worker and NGOs was to work with the poor and establish self-help groups as the primary means of community mobilization; the NGOs posted community officers to live in the villages. The SHGs had been established previously, the NGO community officers encouraged members of poor households to form groups, either male or female. In the other five villages, due to the strong urban influence, there was some doubt about whether it would be possible to establish SHGs and, initially, there was a considerable degree of suspicion among villagers. To improve the level of trust, the NGOs arranged events of common benefi t to the villages, such as a livestock vaccination “camp”. The NGOs then arranged to take some of the villagers to nearby rural villages where they had successfully facilitated the formation of SHGs in previous programmes, so that they could talk to their peers about their experiences of Poverty eradication or elimination Programmes in India and state of Karnataka with special reference to the Hubli Dharwad. Poverty Alleviation schemes and programs having important features that implementing strategy from 10th Five Year Plan that’s given to the Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in the delivery of TPDS. Up to the end of 11th plan, Govt. of India aims to bring down the rate of people percentage from below poverty line to the extent of 10%. Following programmes have been introduced by the Govt. of India for solving the problems.
Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY): PMRY started in 1993 with the objective of making available self-employment opportunities to the educated unemployed youth by assisting them in setting up any economically viable activity.
Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) REGP, launched in 1995 with the objective of creating selfemployment opportunities in the rural areas and small towns, is being implemented by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission
National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP): This programme was launched in during 1995-96. It provides three types of services to poor people. (a) National Family Benefit Scheme (b) National Old Age Pension Scheme (c) National Maternity Benefit Scheme. Complete expenditure on present scheme is done by central government but since April 2001, NMBC has been handed over to ministry of health and family welfare.
Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) This programme was launched in Dec. 1, 1997. Its main object is to provide self employment to unemployed youth of urban areas.
Swaran Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY): SGSY, launched in April 1999, aims at bringing the assisted poor families (Swarozgaris) above the poverty line by organizing them into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through a mix of Bank credit and Government subsidy. In this scheme IRDP and other programmes have been included.
Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY): This is a major scheme for construction of houses of unserviceable kutcha houses to semi- pucca houses has also been added. From 1999-2000, the criteria for allocation of funds to states/UTs has been changed from poverty ratio to the housing shortage in the state. The Ministry of Rural Development (MORD) gives the balance requires support to the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) for this purpose.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) AAY launched in December 2000 provides food grains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs.2.00 per kg for wheat and Rs.3.00 per kg for rice to the poor families under the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). The scale of issue, which was initially 25 kg per family per month, was increased to 35 kg per family per month from April 1, 2002. The scheme was expanded in June 2003 by adding another 50 lakh BPL families. During 2003-04, under the AAY, against an allocation of 45.56 lakh tonnes of food grains, 41.65 tonnes were lifted by the State/UT Governments.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) scheme was launched in December 2000. This is 100 per cent Centrally Sponsored Scheme, objective at providing rural connectivity to unconnected habitations with population of 500 people or more in the rural areas by the end of the Tenth Plan period.
Annpurna Yojana This scheme was initiated on 1st April, 2000. It is 100% centrally sponsored plan. It provides food grains to senior citizens. It involves those citizens who come under old age pension scheme, yet do not get any pension and 10 kgs of food grains, free of cost is given to each individual. Since 2002-03, this scheme has been handed over to states.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) PMGY launched in 2000-01 through grant allocation of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) to the States and UTs for selected basic services like health, primary education, rural shelter, drinking water, nutrition and electrification. By the end of 2003-04 as well as 2004-05, the annual allocation of ACA for PMGY was Rs.2, 800 crore
Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY): The VAMBAY launched in December 2001 facilitates the construction and up gradation of dwelling units for the slum dwellers and provides a healthy and enabling urban environment through community. Toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan is one of the component of the scheme. The Central Government provides a subsidy of 50 per cent, the balance 50 per cent being arranged by the State Government.
National Food for Work Programme (November 14, 2004), the scheme was first introduced in 150 most backward districts of the country with the aims of introduce the generation of alternative wage employment to people. The programme is open to all rural poor who are in searching of employment with the wages and accept the manual unskilled work. It is treated and implemented as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme and the food grains are provided to States free of cost.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS): This scheme was introduced on februrary 2, 2006. This scheme is making beneficiaries from national rural employment guarantee act was passed on 7th September, 2005. In this scheme two more schemes were included (a) Sampooran Gramin Rozgar Yojana and (b) National Food for Work Programme. This NREGS scheme was started in 200 districts at beginning.
Public Distribution System this scheme is provided food grains on cheaper rates to the Poor people, through 4 Lakh fair price shops are been opened to assure food security to them. The present scheme is introduced in both rural and urban areas in some of the states. Almost 3% of government budget is being spent on this scheme. Public distribution system has helped the poor people to some extent.
Prime Minister Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP): This programme was introduced by the govt. in 15th August 2008. In this program two more programs have been merged. (i) Prime Ministert Rozgar Yojana (ii) Rural Employment Generation Programme. The main aim of the programmes is to generate new employment opportunities through micro enterprises.
Mid Day Meals Scheme (MDMS) Under this scheme, school children are provided with free mid day meals. The children in primary classes have been covered under this scheme. Under this scheme, 2.5 crore additional children got benefit it. Children in primary classes and upper primary classes have been coveredin 2008-09 (Verma and Pardeep, 2010). For this purpose Amount of rs. 8000 crore was spent in 2009-10.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) MGNREGA was started in 2006-07 and extended to cover the whole country during the 11th Plan. With a peoplecentred, demand-driven architecture, completely different from the earlier rural employment programmes, MGNREGA has directly led to the creation of 987 crore person-days of work since its inception in 2006-07. In 2010-11 financial years, Present scheme provided the employment to 5.45crore households generating 253.68 crore employment to person days.
Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Eleventh Plan Under this plan following programmes were adopted for poverty alleviation: 1) Special efforts were made for the development of small and rural industries so as to provide employment in rural sector in non agricultural areas. 2) Special efforts were made for consolidating economic conditions off marginal and small farmers, artisans and untrained laborers. 3) Under NREGS 100 days employment were provided soon after the registration of 15 days. 4) Aam Adami Bima Yojana has been launched from October 2, 2007.
There is evidence that poverty alleviation programmes should lead to high income to the poor, but to come out of the cultural mind set of poverty, one needs to be empowered and requires access to basic services. Some of the poverty elimination programmes may not be performing well in terms of utilizing the allocated funds and increasing the economic condition of the poor, these programmes have contributed to the social arena of poverty. For example, daily wages employment scheme was not very successful in view of utilizing resources and generating additional employment for the BPL. But this programme has created village level assets and infrastructure in terms of schools, health centers, roads and ponds. Similarly, Self-help Groups (SHGs) formed by the women has given them tremendous confidence and empowered them to become entrepreneurs. Today, SHGs are not only active in creating micro-enterprises but also they are involved in implementing community programmes like immunization programmes, literacy programmes and so on. Some of them have empowered to the level of contesting Panchayat elections and become members of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI). Again, there is no denial that all these cannot be achieved without an increase in income. Therefore, the economic and social aspects of poverty alleviation are interlinked to one another. Economic upliftment alone cannot alleviate poverty but it must lead to social upliftment in terms of access to services, empowerment and independence. Therefore, the current poverty alleviation programmes in the country should broaden their focus and goal in addition to increasing income to achieve the target of removing poverty from the country.
Debate on Poverty alleviation condition in India has remained principally in the domain of economists. Economic condition is outlined in terms of financial gain, expenditure and nutritional value (calorie intake). Social dimension of Poverty condition could be a neglected space in the Poverty alleviation study. Poverty is a lot of social marginalization of a private, unit or cluster in the community/society instead of inadequacy of income to meet the essential desires. The goal of poverty alleviation programme ought to aim simply increasing the financial gain level of individual, household, better sanitation health treatment and hospitalization, cluster however mainstreaming marginalized within the development method of the country.
Government, non government organization along with the Social work are the fast (economic growth or method) process ought to accelerate the access to services like education and health services for all, particularly the marginalized people of the sector. Provide the clear idea and devlop the skills to poverty alleviation programs ought to address the difficulty of economic condition from broader social and economic views.
Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, Karnataka University, Dharwad
Dr. Sangeetha Mane
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Karnataka University, Dharwad
Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, Karnataka University, Dharwad
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