Health is an important aspect of human Resource development. Good health care facilities and essential for creating healthy citizen and society that can effectively contribute to social and economic development. With increased urbanization, industrialization, are contribution of health resistance and the changing nature of health problems has become a great concern for world today. Therefore three of eight millennium development goes 1) Emphasize on health , they are to reduce child mortality 2) To improve mental combat 3) To reduce HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases.
The tribes, who live in forest areas and remote place, have got their own culture, customs, practices and religion. They have not remained uninfluenced through the source of change. The changes have taken place even among the tribal groups that who lived separate from non-tribal. The change brought about by these force have produced different result and the effects are positive in some cases and contrary in other cases. Therefore, it is important to find out the type of changes that have taken place and factors in effecting these changes and finally the pace and direction of changes that have taken place among them.
It is important to note that we can find several differences among the tribal communities in several spheres of social life. Therefore, the present study proposes to analyses the changes that have taken place among the Halakki’s in uttara Kannada district and the factors associated with these changes.
Meaning of Tribe
The tribal constitutes nearly 7% of the population of India. The tribals live in forest areas, hilly regions, mountainous places and deep valleys. They are known by various names such of primitives, animists jungle people, adivasis and aboriginals.
Bardhan A.B (1973) defines the tribe as a “course of socio-cultural entity at a definite historical stage of development. It is a single endogamous community with a cultural and psychological make-up going back into a distant historical past”. In this definition the emphasis is on the cultural and psychological make-up.
Many of the sociologists, social anthropologists and other social scientists have given a number of definitions. But no definition is universally accepted by all or found application to all the tribes who are living in different part of the country.
Origin of Halakki Vokkaligas :
Halakki vokkaligas, tribal community, can be seen on both sides of national Highway 66, that passes through karwar, Ankola, Kumta, Gokarna and Honnavar taluks of Uttara Kannada district and the parts of land touching the waters of Arabian Sea. There are remnants of ancient Society indicating that there were independent, Self–rule. The whole population of Halakki tribe has been divided into 7 regions. The religious rituals are bound by these regions. The seven regions are chandavara, Gokarna, kadavaada, Ankola, Nushikote, Kumbaara Gadde and Harittesumey.
Group of Halakki huts is called ‘Koppa’. Many koppas together form a sumey. Leader of the sumey is called Arasu or gowda.Each koppa has a Gowda and a Budavantha and kolkaara to assist him. The power of Gowda is hereditary. The judgement pronounced by the Gowda of koppa is contested, leader of Sumey makes the judgments. These are many remnants of ancient society indicating that there was independent, Self-rule.
There are no historical records regarding the origins of Halakki vokkaligas. However R.N Nayak(2012) Who has worked extensively regarding the folk culture of Uttara kannada gives the following reasons as to why it can be assumed that they originated from from Andhra. They are staunch followers of Thirupati Thimmappa. Their songs often mention eastern sea. Telugu word ‘Haalika’ is very much similar to Halakki. The language of Halakki people is Achahagannada.They are the devotes of Thirupati Timmappa. Every house compulsorily has a Tulasimane . It is a curious facts as to how these Halakki, inhabitants of west coast become devotes of eastern ThirupathiT himmappa. Hi.chi Boralingaiah suggests that the Halakki vokkaligas, Gondas, Gamokkalus and kanevokkaligas who earlier used to worship gods Such as ByateBeera. Masti and chodi must have come under the influence of vaishnavism during a special time period. N. R. nayak(ibid) says that this group entered Uttara kannada from Goa’s directions ,stayed in Baithkola of karwar in the beginning. Halakki people recognize a hill of this region as their tribes village.
When their traditional rituals and devotional practices are observed matriarchal culture stands out. Forests plants, animals, hills and brooks are symbols of their clans, which Suggests a Matriarchal society and that they originated from the forests. Now, they have forgotten the names of their ancient clans.
Halakki vokkaligas are confined to the coastal taluks of Uttara kannada district of Karnataka. They are agriculturists liking on farm lands located at the outskirts of towns that are sandwiched between the mighty western Ghats in the east and the expanse of the Arabian sea in the west.75.000 Halakkis like in koppas under direct control of their community are claborately decorated with ‘hali’, (white Rangoli against black or red background) “Halakki kannada” refers to the dialect language in which these people converse.
Meaning of Health
Maybaker defined: Health is not a condition of matter, but of mind or can the material sense bear reliable testimony or the subject of health.
Talcott Parsons (1951) :who describes health as a states of optimum capacity for the effective performance of value tasks.
Karnataka Human Development Report 2005, stated that “Good health is an invaluable asset for better economic productivity both at the individual and national level, but above all it is valued by those who own it as prerequisite for better quality of life and better standard of living.”
Theories of Health :
Parsonian functionalization and ‘The Sick Role” (1951): Although parsons were interested in a variety of issues concerned with the management of illness, It is for emphasis on the social importance of the sick roll that he is usually remembered parsons stresses that there is a significant issue of motivation involved in being sick and getting better in effect people have to decide that are sick and that they need treatment since being sick means choosing to withdraw from normal patterns of social behavior it amounts to a form of deviance: as such the functioning of social system depends on the management and control of those who have decided they return to the performance of normal tasks and the renewed meeting of normal social obligations and the responsibilities. In short, the sick role requires a commitment on the part of those feeling unwell to try to return to normality as soon as possible.
Features define the sick role.
Objectives of the study
Importance of the study
The study of tribal society is an important area of inquiry for the sociologist. Many studies have the various aspects of social life. In contemporary Indian society, various studies focused our attention to the changes taking place among the tribals in their social, economic, religious and historical life. Due to the heterogeneity among tribal groups it has not been possible to derive uniform conclusion regarding the social political economical life as well as society.
Introduction of Adult franchise in India and periodical election that take place to elect representative to parliament and state legislatures and Panchayats have create awareness among the tribal people. Moreover they are aware of their political rights, power alignments and functional politics of the leaders places for votes and promise them to improve their living condition. A result of this awareness about the non-tribal world is slowly emerging among the tribals. The special political privileges granted to the tribals by the Indian constitution have also contributed to the emergency of awakening regarding the political and social situation of the country.
Today political leaders of the tribal are more concerned with improvement in living conditions than with the question of rituals and social status. Hence above all aspects to understand the specific issue in tribal transition, it would be more appropriate to adapt micro method of investigation by selecting to specific tribal living in a specific geographical area. Such studies invariably tend to be empirical in rapture and would be useful for making policy decisions to protect tribal and promote their total up-liftman. Therefore, welfare of the tribal people is also welfare of the nation. Hence the study is essential.
Universe of the study:
According to the 2001 census of Karnataka tribal population has been increased they constituted more than 8.8% of the total population. In our study region Uttar Kannada district constitute approximately 90% of the total population of the district
The respondent have been selected from Uttar Kannada area. The data was collected from 70 despondence (head of the house hold), more over for the collecting data of the past the elders opinion on the leaders & other knowledgeable person’s in the community also interviewed.
The study is based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected with the help of interview schedule. The interview schedule contained both pre-coded and open ended questions. On an average each interview took about half an hour to one hour. The unit of the head of the house hold and interviews were conducted during the day time.
After the completion of the data collected each interview schedule was carefully edited to check the completeness, accuracy and validity of the data. Besides respondents, the men and other family members also participated in the discussion.
The above table 1.1 Indicates the educational qualification of the respondents. The respondents interviewed are both men and women among the total respondents 45(64.28%) are illiterates. 20 (28.57%) respondents studied up to primary school . Therefore it is clear from data people are more negligent in education as well as in health condition.
The above table 1.2 indicates respondents’ occupation 05 (7.14) respondents were engaged govt. sector 50 (71.42), respondents were engaged in Agriculture. Further less number of respondents engaged Agriculture labour, they are 10(14.28) and remaining 5(7.14) were engaged in coolie.
The above table 1.3 indicates that among 70 respondents 16(22.85) respondents used to smoke Bidi and 11 (15.71) respondents used to smoke cigarette. 10 (14.28) respondents used Ganja. Smoking Bidi is more common than the use Cigarettes. Cigarette smoking cannot afforded by a majority of the people. Hence the smoking of bidi is gradually increasing in village. It is noticed that out of 70 respondents 12 (17.14) do not have habit of smoking.
The table No. 1.4 indicates that out of 70 respondents 39 (55.79) of respondents do not have the habit of alcohol consumption. 31 (44.28%) of respondents out of 70 are found to be habitual drinkers. Thus the chronic and heavy drinking habit of alcohol is often responsible for liver damages, neuritis, and other similar complaints. It is important to note that among the respondents who are habitual drinkers include men, women and grown up children.
Common Diseases in the village locality and Causes of Some of These Diseases as Perceived by villagers
The basic assumption of this study is that persons who are living in a particular geographical area are subjected to face their own specific health problems. Every society views health problems from the perspective of its own culture and responds to them according to the understanding, knowledge, values and beliefs of the people. Health is not only bio-physical phenomena but also a cause of the social disorder in the life of the community. Here social disorder of the life of the community is viewed in terms of community environment and amenities which exists in the community. The data shows that most of the respondents perform occupation like agriculture and coolie and most importantly are illiterates and the factors like housing pattern, food habits, smoking and alcohol consumption etc, are leading to the following consequences of which it is associated with.
The above table 1.5 clearly shows the common health problems faced by the respondents in the daily living in the village under study. It is noticed that there is relationship between the personal hygiene, food habits, occupation and incidence of health problems and diseases. Out of 70 respondents 11(15.71%) said that they have regular headache problems. 17(24.28%) of respondents said that they have back pain and 09(12.85) respondents said that they have body pain and 19(27.14%) of the respondents relied that they have cough and cold regularly 14(19.99%) respondents that they have regular stomach ache.
Conclusion and Findings
The main objective of the study was to understand the nature status and health problems among the Halakki of Uttar Kannada. The findings of this study are based on the data collected from 70 respondents the major findings of the study.
Research scholar, Department of Studies and Research in Sociology, Kuvempu University, Shakaragatta Shimoga
Assit. professor & Research Guide, Department of sociology, Sahyadri Arts & Commerce College
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