The phenomenon of human trafficking has increased significantly over the past two decades, both globally and in South Asian countries. India is a source; destination and transit country for men, women and children trafficked for the purpose of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Women and girl are trafficked within the country for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage. Children are also subjected to forced labour as factory workers, domestic servants, beggars and agricultural workers. Due persistent inequalities worldwide, women are more vulnerable to this practice which is a consequence of structured gender inequality in the form of violence. Trafficking for sexual exploitation typically includes abuse within the commercial sex industry (US trafficking in person’s report 2009).
Poverty and health is one of the important aspects because it is going hand in hand. As the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has shown, substantially improved health outcomes are a prerequisite if developing countries are to break out of the circle of poverty. Good health contributes to development through a number of pathways, which partly overlap but in each case add to the total impact: Higher labour productivity, Higher rates of domestic and foreign investment, Improved human capital, Higher rates of national savings. Demographic changes. Health systems comprise the promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services delivered by health personnel and their support structures (e.g. drug-procurement systems). They include both public- and private-sector services (for-profit and not-forprofit), formal and informal, as well as traditional services, and home- and family-based care. In many developing countries health systems are weak and fragmented, with the result that millions of the world’s poor do not have access to the public health services and personal care they need. In this respect, a major challenge is to address the gender, ethnic and socio-economic biases in health service delivery in order to reach vulnerable groups and groups with special needs.
Poverty and Mental Health in India
Managing good health is difficult due to many stressors in our daily life. A person with good in financial condition faces health problems and gets disturb psychologically sometimes. It is very challenging to have good health for people facing poverty because they face many stressors in day to day life. As we know, poverty is one of social problems in India. Poverty leads to other problems also. Poverty is an inability to fulfil the physiological needs, that is, need for existence, safety and security. The number of poor people in India, according to the country’s Eleventh National Development Plan, amounts to more than 300 million. The country has successful in reducing the proportion of poor people from about 55 percent in 1973 to about 27 percent in 2004, but almost one-third of the country’s of more than 11 billion continues to live below the poverty like, and a large proportion of poor people live in rural areas (R.Ahuja, 2014).
Poverty and Inclusion in Handloom Sector- A Case Study Of Chirala Handloom Weavers
According to the Third National Handloom Census of Handloom Weavers and Allied Workers 2010, nearly 27.83 lakh handloom households are engaged in weaving and allied activities, out of which 87% are located in rural areas and remaining 13 % in urban areas. The handloom sector is second largest source of employment in the country, next only to agriculture. It provides employment for 12.5 million people and is the largest rural employment provider next to agriculture.
Poverty in India, according to the Planning Commission report, has reduced successfully in 2009-10 from 1973. Similarly, the rural poverty also declined during the same period. However, India is still facing the mass poverty even after successful completion of Eleventh Five Year Plan. For poverty alleviation, India started a number of programs and policies; but all remained unsuccessful. Despite achieving more than 5 per cent economic growth, the trickle-down effect idea to reach the benefit of growth to the poor also failed. Several laws were passed for poverty alleviation, but they too could not help much to the poor. Now, the planning commission thought of “inclusive growth” for the poor to be included in the growth and development process. MGNREGA is one of the important act for the rural people to include in the growth process. It is helpful in reducing poverty in rural areas by providing 100 days guaranteed wage employment. In the villages, the infrastructures are created, which is of prime importance for the development of the rural as well as the urban areas. MGNREGA is also helpful in raising the standard of living of the rural people. However, the people in rural areas welcomed the MGNREGA, but considered it as “half a loaf is better than none”. India fixed the target for the growth of 9.0 to 9.5 percent for the Twelfth plan, but it should be inclusive. Poverty, therefore, must be addressed at priority basis, because growth has no meaning without reducing misery and hunger to the large sections of the society. In India, more than 70 present people live in rural areas and among rural population. Marginalized sections of the society are more vulnerable.
Gender norms and patterns are rigid, and very often put women in disadvantaged positions relative to men – including limiting women’s equal access to decent work. But gender norms can and do change. Economic policies – at the macro, meso and micro levels – can be designed in ways that are transformative and that enhance gender equity. The ability of paid employment to expand women’s range of choices – hence contributing to closing persistent gender gaps in labour markets and within households – is related to the type of jobs women have access to, the level and regularity of their earnings, the opportunities for mobilizing and organizing, and the ways in which women’s and men’s productive and reproductive roles are coordinated and protected through policies. Gender based deprivations and inequalities; poverty can be very debilitating and add on to the vulnerabilities of women. Another significant issue is regarding the fact that experiences and responses to poverty are dissimilar among men and women, due to the gendered constraints and variations in the opportunities (Masika, et al., 1997; Razavi, 2000).
The Copenhagen Declaration describes absolute impoverishment as ‘a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human wants, as well as food, safe potable, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information’. Extreme impoverishment is that the results of permanent or long lasting kinds of dangerousness that undermine the capability of people, families, communities and population teams to assume basic rights enshrined within the International Bill of Human Rights. The social problem and Extreme impoverishment can’t be overcome by material aid and capability building alone, nor will impoverishment reduction initiatives achieve success unless they’re supported the popularity of the inherent dignity and on the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family as expressed within the social work and Universal Declaration of Human Rights preamble.
About 50 percent of total population constitutes women, but women workers constitute only 16 percent, 80 percent remain engaged in unorganized sectors. The entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. According to the United Nations Human Development Report (2002) in India women work 457 minutes per day and men391. The type of activities men and women do explains why women work more time than men but their estimated income is lower. Women spend 65% of their time in non-market activities, and men spend 92% of their time in market activities. However, the number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly and many are creating Substantial businesses Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business field. But the Indian women entrepreneurs are facing some major constraints. Women are expected to perform the domestic and reproductive tasks like cooking, cleaning, collection of fuel wood and water, care for the animals, child bearing and rearing. This type of mentality imposes restrictions on their mobility and on their contacts with the outside world, restrains their access to jobs and their social and political participation in the society. They are dependent on men, economically, socially and politically, and have limited direct independent access to resources.
The right to food that comes under the Article 21, right to life with reference to the Directive Principle of State Policy, Article 47 i.e. concerning about the nutrition and standard of living has led to the implementation of new and better government programmes. Such programmes include mid day meals for school children, nutritious food for adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating mothers, subsidized food for vulnerable groups i.e. Public Distribution System
Environmental Degradation And Economic Challenges Faced By The Kurumbas Of Melebhudayar, Attapadi, Kerala
Tribal livelihood is greatly influenced by the environment that they live with. Amidst novelties, the Tribal population in most of the states in India habituate and depend on the ecology for their sustainability. Tribal population is characterised by backwardness due to very many reasons such as social, geographical isolation, inaccessibility and has a great problem with reach of services. This backwardness makes the Tribal population to be vulnerable among other categories of people (World Bank, 2012). Tribal people are distinct in terms of their interaction with the environment that they habituate. Most of their diets are based on forest produce which is of sufficient nutrition. They make use of every roots and shoots in their environment for their medicinal values and other daily use such that one could observe their culture intertwined with the natural environment.
A Study on the Impact of MGNREGS in Alleviating Poverty among Backward Class Women in Rechamballi Village of Chamarajanagara District
Poverty is one of the major human challenges in any part of the world and in any cultural back ground universally without any exceptions. It is culturally believed in India that a person experiencing poverty can’t even cross his own house borders when a physically challenged even can climb tricky hill ranges unabatedly. This concept explains that poverty impinges on human being a great sense of burden in terms of severe limitations on psyche, body and global social life. Our ancient scriptures described poverty in series of mythological stories in a vivid manner, where in Kuchela (the close associate of Lord Krishna) was described of having undergone poverty of utter distressing grades. Poverty becomes significant not by its mere presence itself but by its capacity of causing consequent realities such as enforcing the individual to be incapable of accessing Socio-economic supports and mainstream social life.
Festival spending pattern; its impact on Financial Vulnerability of Rural Households
Festival is a day or days of celebration of an organized series of cultural and social concerts or to remember an event to promote the cultural heritage of the society Poverty could result from transient phenomena and sudden shocks such as crop failure, untimely death etc. The impact of such shocks can be transient in the event of the household being able to sell assets or borrow or generate income from alternative employment opportunities that enable it to wait for income from the next harvest. However, if the household has no assets to sell or no access to credit, or is able to borrow at exploitative rates of interest and gets into a debt trap, shocks can have long duration ramifications in terms of pushing households below the poverty line.
Social Action as the Most Appropriate Social Work Approach for Reducing Poverty and Income Inequality in India
Social Action is seen within Social Work as one of its auxiliary methods. It has not been given much importance in Social Work Education as well as in Practice. On the contrary it is seen as a difficult method to practice because Social Action is perceived to be very radical and confrontationist and to be inviting problems in a tradition-bound country like India. However, we need to acknowledge that understanding and use of Social Action goes much beyond what is conceptualized and practiced in Professional Social Work. It is because Social Action is practiced mostly by those not trained in Professional Social Work than by those with such a degree. It is also argued, many a time, that professionalization of Social Work has weakened Social Action (Jacob, 1965). In such a context, the present paper argues that Social Action should be seen as having a great deal of potential to bring about the systemic change in a country like India which is still struggling with the issues related to poverty and income inequality and that it should be adopted as an approach of Social Work Profession rather than as an auxiliary method.
Poverty Reduction of North East Women Migrant Workers: Problems and Social Work Interventions
Women are the pillar of society and play an important role in society, in all fields of life, without their participation no society can nurture properly. From the ancient time, women have been equally participating with their men, but their participation in labor force has not been given the same consideration as men collect from their work. Women are still expected to perform the duties of household in spite of their working status. Working women in India are faced with lot more challenges than their counterparts in the other parts of the world. So the major burden of running the family is on the shoulders of women. It was alright for women to handle all the chores as long as they were homemakers. Now with their increasing need for getting some income for the family, they have to work all the more harder. Globalization has indeed raised hopes of women for a better and elevated status arising out of increased chances to work but, at the same time, it has put them in a highly contradictory situation where they have the label of economically independent paid workers but are not able to enjoy their economic liberty in real sense of the term.
Seeding the thought
“Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way, into the dreary desert sand of dead habit, where the mind is led forward by thee into ever widening thought and action, into that heaven of freedom, my father, let my country awake” Rabindranath Tagore
If one were to draw blind-folded, an image of an Indian, from what is heard and seen about India and its people by others outside its borders, perhaps it should not be surprising to see anyone drawing a dark, skinny and dusty person with a grim face and a turban wrapped several times around the head, standing amidst dark, gloomy clouds of lust and violence, corruption and scams, pollution and population hovering in the backdrop, holding a deep-pitted begging bowl raised towards any leaking place from which foreign funds have the slightest hint of dripping… no matter how demeaning the picture might be.
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